This corresponds to about 32.7 million people under the age of 17 exposed to vulnerabilities, or six out of every ten children in the country
If they were inhabitants of a city, Brazilian children and adolescents with some precariousness – whether financial or in access to rights such as education and housing – would make up almost three whole São Paulo.
This corresponds to about 32.7 million people under the age of 17 who are exposed to vulnerabilities, or 6 out of every 10 children in the country. In a report released on Tuesday (14), Unicef (United Nations Children’s Fund) adopts an unprecedented criterion in the treatment of poverty among Brazilian children: it includes not only per capita income indicators, but also compliance with fundamental rights guaranteed by law.
The document shows that monetary “only” poverty has been reduced in the last decade, but deprivations of one or more entitlements have not declined in the same proportion. Still, according to the report, 18 million children (34% of the total) live in households with insufficient per capita income to buy a basic food basket (less than R $ 346 monthly in urban areas and R $ 269 in rural areas).
The report is based on data from the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD) 2015.
Unicef cautions: in addition to considering nuances as the influence of race and the region of the country, the design of public policies to deal with childhood poverty should also consider assistance to mothers, fathers and caretakers.
Considering the law, the study mapped where Brazil is failing to guarantee the rights of children and adolescents. In addition to both “intermediate” and “extreme” deprivations, it is sanitation (with indicators such as the presence of toilets and sewage collection) that harms the largest number of children and adolescents (13.3 million), followed by education (8 , 8 million) and water (7.6 million).
The biggest problem is the disposal of human waste, since 22% of children under 18 years of age live in houses with rudimentary or next to Wallops. The most serious general picture is in the North and Northeast of the country, where 44.6% and 39.4%, respectively, of the small ones have at least one deprivation with respect to the sanitation.
Among black boys and girls, ‘deprivation rate’ exceeds the national average and exceeds 50%.
The sanitation itself reflects differences observed in other issues: among children and adolescents deprived of sanitation, 70% are black.
Considering all the categories of deprivation involved in the study, black boys and girls have a “deprivation rate” of 58% versus 38% of whites (in Brazil, the rate is 49.7%).
With regard to extreme deprivations – that is, where there is no access to the right in question – the inequality between blacks and whites is intensified: it affects 23.6% of blacks and 12.8% of whites under 18 years.
In education, for example, there are 545 thousand black boys and girls between 8 and 17 years of age illiterate, versus 207 thousand whites. In general, children and adolescents living in rural areas have more rights denied than those in urban areas; and residents of the North and Northeast regions face more deprivation than those in the South and Southeast.
But there are exceptions: in the dwelling (adequate number of people per dormitory, appropriate materials in the ceilings and walls and etc.), the North is in the lantern, followed by the Southeast and Northeast.
Meanwhile, the percentage of boys and girls who have their rights violated is double in the field (87.5%) compared to cities (41.6%).
A fifth of Brazilians between the ages of 4 and 17 have the right to education violated – this is considering intermediate deprivations, such as school backwardness or illiteracy after age 7, and extreme deprivations, such as children who are simply not in school.
Meanwhile, 6.2% of the country’s children and adolescents carry out domestic or paid child labor. This, even when this type of activity is illegal, as in the 5 to 9 years (3%, or 425 thousand boys and girls in this segment work) and 10 to 13 years (7.4%).
The workload is higher for girls, with the exception of paid work among adolescents – the higher among boys. Being black or living in the North or Northeast implies a higher incidence of child labor.